The TIMSS Video Study

The TIMSS 1999 Video Study was a study of eighth-grade mathematics and science teaching in seven countries. The study involved videotaping and analyzing teaching practices in more than one thousand classrooms. In conjunction with the International Association of the Evaluation of Education Achievement (IEA), the study was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education under a contract with LessonLab, Inc. of Los Angeles, California.

Goals of TIMSS 1999 Video Study 

  • Investigate mathematics and science teaching practices in U.S. classrooms.
  • Compare U.S. teaching practices with those found in high-achieving countries.
  • Discover new ideas about teaching mathematics and science.
  • Develop new teaching research methods and tools for teacher professional development.
  • Create a digital library of images of teaching to inform U.S. educational policy.
  • Stimulate and focus discussion of teaching practices among educators, policymakers, and the public.

Design and Procedures

At least 100 schools were randomly selected in each country. One math lesson and one science lesson was videotaped in each school that agreed to participate. Taping was distributed evenly throughout the school year so that the lessons represent the full range of eighth-grade mathematics and science instruction in each country. A teacher and student questionnaire, and worksheets and textbook pages used in the lessons supplement the videotapes.

Participating Countries

The countries participating in the mathematics portion of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were Australia, the Czech Republic, Hong Kong SAR, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States. The countries participating in the science portion of the study were Australia, the Czech Republic, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States.
 
Although Japan did not participate in the mathematics portion of the study, the Japanese mathematics data collected as part of the TIMSS 1995 Video Study were re-analyzed for the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. U.S. mathematics data collected as part of the TIMSS 1995 Video Study were also re-analyzed.

Timeline

The TIMSS 1999 Video Study began with a field test in May, 1998. Most of the filming took place in 1999, and depended on the school calendar in each country. The international mathematics report was released in 2003, and the international science report was released in 2006.

Instruments

This manual documents videography procedures.

This manual was created to train and guide video coders.

This manual documents transcription and translation procedures.

This questionnaire (or a translation/adaptation of it) was completed by all teachers who participated in the study.

This questionnaire (or a translation/adaptation of it) was completed by all students who participated in the study.

Reports

This is a brief version of the full, international math report.

Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givvin, K. B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., Chui, A. M., Wearne, D., Smith, M., Kersting, N., Manaster, A., Tseng, E., Etterbeek, W., Manaster, C., Gonzales, P., & Stigler, J.  (2003).   Highlights from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study of Eighth Grade Mathematics Teaching, NCES (2003-011), U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

This report focuses on the findings of the mathematics portion of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study with brief descriptions of the methods used. The results in this report are presented from an international perspective.

Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givvin, K. B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., Chui, A. M., Wearne, D., Smith, M., Kersting, N., Manaster, A., Tseng, E., Etterbeek, W., Manaster, C., Gonzales, P., & Stigler, J.  (2003).   Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study, NCES (2003-013), U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

This report focuses on the planning, implementation, processing, analysis, and reporting of the mathematics components of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.

Jacobs, J., Garnier, H., Gallimore, R., Hollingsworth, H., Givvin, K. B., Rust, K., Kawanaka, T., Smith, M., Wearne, D., Manaster, A., Etterbeek, W., Hiebert, J., & Stigler, J. (2003). TIMSS 1999 Video Study Technical Report: Volume 1: Mathematics Study, NCES (2003-012),U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

This is a brief version of the full, international science report.

Roth, K.J., Druker, S.L., Garnier, H.E., Lemmens, M., Chen, C., Kawanaka, T., Rasmussen, D., Trubacova, S., Okamoto, Y., Gonzales, P., Stigler, J., & Gallimore, R. (2006). Highlights from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study of eighth-grade science teaching (NCES 2006-17). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

This report focuses on the findings of the science portion of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study with brief descriptions of the methods used. The results in this report are presented from an international perspective.

Roth, K.J., Druker, S.L., Garnier, H.E., Lemmens, M., Chen, C., Kawanaka, T., Rasmussen, D., Trubacova, S., Warvi, D., Okamoto, Y., Gonzales, P., Stigler, J., & Gallimore, R. (2006). Teaching science in five countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study (NCES 2006-11). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Publications

The authors present lessons from international research than might be used to improve the culture of teaching in the U.S.

Hiebert, J., & Stigler, J.W.  (2004). A world of difference. Journal of Staff Development, 25(4), 10-15.

Analyses compare features of classroom teaching with pedagogical recommendations for middle school teachers in the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics in order to examine the extent to which teaching in U.S. eighth-grade classrooms in standards-based.

Jacobs, J., Hiebert, J., Givvin, K., Hollingsworth, H., Garnier, H., Wearne, D., (2006). Does eighth-grade mathematics teaching in the United States align with the NCTM Standards? Results from the TIMSS 1995 and 1999 Video Studies, Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 37(1), 5-32.

The authors argue that improving teaching in the U.S. won’t succeed until we change the culture of teacher learning.

Stigler, J.W., & Hiebert, J. (2009). Closing the teaching gap. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 32-39.

The goal of this chapter is to explore whether differences in classroom practices across countries mirror differences in experts’ views (or whether the differences exist in spite of shared views among experts).

Givvin, K.B., Jacobs, J., Hollingsworth, H., & Hiebert, J. (2009).  What is effective math teaching? International educators’ judgments of mathematics lessons from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. In J. Cai, G. Kaiser, R. Perry, & N-Y. Wong (Eds.) Effective mathematics teaching from teachers’ perspectives: National and cross-national studies, 37-69.  Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

In the TIMSS 1999 Video Study, the U.S. displayed a unique system of teaching, not because of any particular classroom feature but because of a constellation of features that reinforced attention to lower-level mathematics skills.  The authors argue that these results are relevant for policy debates because they provide an account of what actually is happening inside U.S. classrooms and because they demonstrate that current debates often pose overly simple choices.

Hiebert, J., Stigler, J. W., Jacobs, J. K., Givvin, K. B., Garnier, H., Smith, M., Hollingsworth, H., Manaster, A., Wearne, D., & Gallimore, R. (2005). Mathematics teaching in the United States today (and tomorrow): Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27, 111-132.

In this article the authors share some of the methodological lessons learned from the TIMSS 1995 and TIMSS 1999 Video Studies. They documents both the progress made and the obstacles encountered.

Jacobs, J., Hollingsworth, H., & Givvin, K.B. (2007). Video-based research made ‘easy’: Methodological lessons learned from the TIMSS Video Studies, Field Methods, 19(3), 284-299.

Should teaching be viewed as a universal activity, as a national activity, or as uniquely classroom activity?  The authors focus on the purpose, classroom interaction, and content activity of TIMSS lessons to explore this question.

Givvin, K.B., Hiebert, J., Jacobs, J.K., Hollingsworth, H., Gallimore, R. (2005). Are there national patterns of teaching? Evidence from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. Comparative Education Review, 49(3), 311-343.

This article describes the response to a teacher’s courage in allowing others to view her lesson as a means of improving their own mathematics teaching.

Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., & Stigler, J.W. (2003). New Heroes of Teaching. Ed Week, 23(10), 42, 56.

The authors propose a research and development system for improving teaching that builds on the Japanese process of lesson study.  They describe the process as it works in Japan and outline the conditions that would enable such a process to function effectively in the U.S.

Hiebert, J., & Stigler, J.W.  (2000). A proposal for improving classroom teaching: Lessons from the TIMSS Video Study. The Elementary School Journal, 101(1), 3-20. 

 

The authors present two key results from the mathematics video study and two from the science video study that have important implications for improving mathematics and science teaching in U.S. schools.

Roth, K.J. & Givvin, K.B. (May 2008). Implications for math and science instruction from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study, Principal Leadership, 22-27.

After the release of the TIMSS 1995 Video Study, many educators concluded that only Japanese teaching methods would produce high achievement. The follow-up study reported here looks at teaching methods in five additional high-achieving countries to determine whether this was indeed the case.

Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givvin, K. B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., Chui, A. M.-Y., Wearne, D., Smith, M., Kersting, N., Manaster, A., Tseng, E., Etterbeek, W., Manaster, C., Gonzales, P., & Stigler, J. W. (2003). Understanding and improving mathematics teaching: Highlights from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. Phi Delta Kappan, 84 (10),768-775.

  • What Math Teaching Looks Like

This article describes briefly the science teaching patterns observed across the five countries in the science portion of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.

Givvin, K.B., Jacobs, J.K., Hollingsworth, H. (2006). What does teaching look like around the world? ON-Math, 4(1), Multimedia resources available at http://www.nctm.org/eresources/view_article.asp?add=Y&article_id=7396

This article describes briefly the science teaching patterns observed across the five countries in the science portion of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.  The authors use their observations to recommend potential directions for improving science teaching in the United States.

Roth, K., & Garnier, H. (2006). What science teaching looks like: An international perspective. Science in the Spotlight, 64(4), 16-23.